Fundamentals of Multimedia

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Ze-Nian Li, Mark S.

  1. Fundamentals Of Multimedia!
  2. You are here.
  3. The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell [Vol II].
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Drew, Jiangchuan Liu. Pages A Taste of Multimedia. Graphics and Image Data Representations. Color in Image and Video.

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Fundamental Concepts in Video. Basics of Digital Audio. Lossless Compression Algorithms. Lossy Compression Algorithms.

Fundamentals of multimedia - Semantic Scholar

Image Compression Standards. Basic Video Compression Techniques. New Video Coding Standards: H. Basic Audio Compression Techniques. Network Services and Protocols for Multimedia Communications. Internet Multimedia Content Distribution. Multimedia Over Wireless and Mobile Networks. Social Media Sharing.

Cloud Computing for Multimedia Services. Content-Based Retrieval in Digital Libraries. Back Matter Pages Introduction to Multimedia Abstract. This textbook is aimed at computer science or engineering students, and consequently a more application-oriented view of what multimedia consists of is what is emphasized. The convergence going on in this field, with computers, smartphones, games, digital TV including 3D, multimedia-based search, and so on converging in technology, means that multimedia is a field that is essentially mandatory for such students to study.

Moreover with the pervasive penetration of wireless mobile networks and development of mobile applications for smartphones and tablets, and the advent of social media, the contents of a multimedia course arguably forms the basis for much of the further studies many students will engage in. The components of multimedia are first introduced and then current multimedia research topics and projects are discussed to put the field into a perspective of what is actually at play at the edge of work in this field. Since multimedia is indeed a practical field, Chapter 1 also supplies an overview of multimedia software tools, such as video editors and digital audio programs, that are typically used to produce multimedia products such as those that are indeed produced in a course in this subject.

The fundamentals of multimedia storytelling: multi-tasking and teamwork

In Chapter 2, we introduce a set of tasks and concerns that are considered in studying multimedia, from the point of view of a technically comfortable reader. When it comes to multimedia production and presentation, the issues of graphics styles fonts are discussed, with some surprising conclusions. We then go on to review the current and future state of multimedia sharing and distribution, outlining later discussions of social media, video sharing, and new forms of TV.

Finally, the details of some popular multimedia tools are set out for a quick start into the field. In this chapter we discuss how images are stored, starting off with the simplest image data, 1 bit per pixel. Grayscale, 8-bit images are considered next, and we consider the problem of how to actually send images to a printer and what problems and solutions this entails. RGB bit color images are then explored, looking at the three color planes as images in their own right, and capturing RGB information content via a three-dimensional histogram of colors is introduced.

Returning to 8 bits, the concept of a color palette is discussed; but this then brings up the problem of just what colors shall we distinguished by inclusion in the palette. To this end, the problem of how to devise a color lookup table is considered, with the Median-Cut algorithm brought forward as one solution.

The GIF format is simple but representative, and for this reason it is set out in some detail. To wrap up the discussion the PTM Polynomial Texture Mapping technique and format is included, with the capability of virtually exploring the surfaces of cultural heritage precious objects. In this chapter, color and color spaces are introduced; without excellent color, images and video would look unacceptable.

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But how is this accomplished in the real world, light bounces off surfaces and the resulting spectrum enter the eye. Retinal sensors then take over, forming a trio of signal values in combinations of red, green, and blue. But if a camera is used instead, then the question arises of just what values should properly be stored, with the objective of eventually perceiving the right colors when the image is viewed on a display. This chapter sets out the basics of Color Science, which is the science of human vision. It then goes on to consider image formation in the eye and in cameras, arriving at the question of specifications for color display screens.

The mismatch between human vision and display systems brings up the notion of out-of-gamut colors and white point correction, as well as perceptual color.

Finally, other color-coordinate schemes are introduced, including color in printers and video. In this chapter, we introduce the principal notions needed to understand video. Here we consider the following aspects of video and how they impact multimedia applications: 1 Analog video; 2 Digital video; 3 Video display interfaces; 4 3D video.

Knowledge of video must include historically important standards in Analog Video. Audio data has special and unique properties: e. Therefore, how to sensibly compress sound information is an important question.

Fundamental of Multimedia

We begin with a discussion of just what makes up sound, and consider the digitization of sound information. We introduce the Nyquist Theorem as a fundamental property of sampling.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNR is defined and adopted as a useful measure of audio and in general, signal quality, including the effect of quantization noise. Linear and nonlinear quantization, including companding for audio data, are discussed. Synthetic sounds are introduced, and we then go on to a thorough introduction to the use of MIDI as an enabling technology to capture, store, and play back musical notes. We look at some details of audio quantization, and give introductory information on how digital audio is dealt with for storage and transmission.

This entails a first discussion of how subtraction of signals from predicted values yields numbers that are close to zero, and hence easier to deal with Pulse Code Modulation PCM is introduced, followed by differential coding of audio and lossless predictive coding. In this chapter, data compression as it relates to multimedia information is studied from the point of view of lossless algorithms, where the input data is essentially exactly recoverable from the compressed data Lossy algorithms, for which this is not the case, are presented in Chapter 8.

Here we introduce the fundamentals of information theory and algorithms whose goal is a savings in bitrate given the entropy, especially Huffman Coding and its adaptive version. We then study Dictionary-based Coding as in Winzip and go on to a detailed discussion of Arithmetic Coding. Finally, Lossless Image Compression is examined specifically. In this chapter we examine compression algorithms such that recovered input data cannot be exactly reconstructed from compressed version. What we have, then, is a tradeoff between efficient compression versus a less accurate version of the input data.

This tradeoff is captured in the Rate-Distortion Theory. Most of the loss occurs in quantization, and we introduce both Uniform and Nonuniform Scalar Quantization, and then Vector Quantization. We study DCT in great length and provide several examples. Recent years have seen an explosion in the availability of digital images. In this chapter, we examine some current image compression standards and demonstrate how techniques presented in Chaps. A video can be viewed as a sequence of images stacked in the temporal dimension. Since the frame rate of the video is often relatively high, the contents of consecutive frames are usually similar.

In other words, video has temporal redundancy. All digital video compression algorithms including H. In this chapter the fundamentals of motion compensation based video compression are introduced. We cover sufficient details of H. These form the foundation for all modern video compression standards. In MPEG-1 and -2, bidirectional search for motion vectors is introduced. Moreover, it supports various scalable codings such as SNR, spatial, temporal, and their combination.

Fundamentals of Multimedia

MPEG-4 and -7 studied the issue of video coding based on video objects. Although the visual object-based video representation and compression approach developed in MPEG-4 and 7 have not been commonly used in current popular standards such as H. We introduced basic video compression techniques in Chaps.

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