# Heat Transfer Calculations There exist simple fluid-specific correlations for heat transfer coefficient in boiling.

### Convection and Heat Transfer Coefficients

The Thom correlation is for the flow of boiling water subcooled or saturated at pressures up to about 20 MPa under conditions where the nucleate boiling contribution predominates over forced convection. This correlation is useful for rough estimation of expected temperature difference given the heat flux: . The resistance to the flow of heat by the material of pipe wall can be expressed as a "heat transfer coefficient of the pipe wall". However, one needs to select if the heat flux is based on the pipe inner or the outer diameter. Selecting to base the heat flux on the pipe inner diameter, and assuming that the pipe wall thickness is small in comparison with the pipe inner diameter, then the heat transfer coefficient for the pipe wall can be calculated as if the wall were not curved [ citation needed ] :.

If the above assumption does not hold, then the wall heat transfer coefficient can be calculated using the following expression:. The thermal conductivity of the tube material usually depends on temperature; the mean thermal conductivity is often used.

## Combined Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Equation | Engineers Edge | woodcnilithibi.ml

For two or more heat transfer processes acting in parallel, convective heat transfer coefficients simply add:. For two or more heat transfer processes connected in series, convective heat transfer coefficients add inversely: . For example, consider a pipe with a fluid flowing inside. The approximate rate of heat transfer between the bulk of the fluid inside the pipe and the pipe external surface is: . It is commonly applied to the calculation of heat transfer in heat exchangers , but can be applied equally well to other problems. The overall heat transfer coefficient takes into account the individual heat transfer coefficients of each stream and the resistance of the pipe material.

It can be calculated as the reciprocal of the sum of a series of thermal resistances but more complex relationships exist, for example when heat transfer takes place by different routes in parallel :. The heat transfer coefficient is the heat transferred per unit area per kelvin. Thus area is included in the equation as it represents the area over which the transfer of heat takes place. The areas for each flow will be different as they represent the contact area for each fluid side.

The thermal resistance due to the pipe wall is calculated by the following relationship:. The thermal conductivity is a characteristic of the particular material. Values of thermal conductivities for various materials are listed in the list of thermal conductivities. As mentioned earlier in the article the convection heat transfer coefficient for each stream depends on the type of fluid, flow properties and temperature properties.

Heat Exchanger Calculation

Often during their use, heat exchangers collect a layer of fouling on the surface which, in addition to potentially contaminating a stream, reduces the effectiveness of heat exchangers. In a fouled heat exchanger the buildup on the walls creates an additional layer of materials that heat must flow through. Due to this new layer, there is additional resistance within the heat exchanger and thus the overall heat transfer coefficient of the exchanger is reduced.

The following relationship is used to solve for the heat transfer resistance with the additional fouling resistance: . This equation uses the overall heat transfer coefficient of an unfouled heat exchanger and the fouling resistance to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient of a fouled heat exchanger. The equation takes into account that the perimeter of the heat exchanger is different on the hot and cold sides. The fouling resistances can be calculated for a specific heat exchanger if the average thickness and thermal conductivity of the fouling are known. The product of the average thickness and thermal conductivity will result in the fouling resistance on a specific side of the heat exchanger.

## Heat transfer

Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science. Journal of Heat Transfer. November International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. A Textbook on Heat Transfer Fourth ed. Universities Press.

Heat Transmission Third ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Welty; Charles E.

Wicks; Robert E. Wilson; Gregory L. Rorrer Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat and Mass transfer 5th edition. John Wiley and Sons. Kutateladze; V. Borishanskii A Concise Encyclopedia of Heat Transfer. Pergamon Press. At a given temperature, different materials can hold different amounts of thermal energy. For instance, if you warm up a potato, it can hold its heat longer as your tongue can testify than a lighter material such as cotton candy.

Because the potato stores more thermal energy for a given change in temperature; therefore, more heat has to flow to cool the potato than is needed to cool the cotton candy. The measure of how much heat it takes to raise the temperature of an object of a given mass a given number of degrees is called its specific heat. Suppose you see someone making a pot of coffee.

You measure exactly 1. You find out that you need 4, joules of heat energy to raise the temperature of the coffee by 1 degree Celsius, but you need only joules to raise 1. The heat energy goes into the substance being heated, which stores the energy as internal energy until it leaks out again. Note: If you need 4, joules to raise 1. Usually physicists calculate the specific heat through experimentation, so most problems give you c or refer you to a table of specific-heat values for various materials.

You can use the heat equation to find out how temperature changes when you mix liquids of different temperatures. You call over your host. The coffee is 45 degrees Celsius, but you like it at 65 degrees Celsius. The host gets up to pour some more. Heat Transfer Calculations Heat Transfer Calculations Heat Transfer Calculations Heat Transfer Calculations Heat Transfer Calculations Heat Transfer Calculations Heat Transfer Calculations

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