Accordingly, he followed the policy of sanctioning liberal grants from the Government funds for its expansion and consequently there was a considerable increase in the number of pupils attending primary schools. Curzon also stopped the discriminatory system of payment by results and introduced the more scientific method of paying recurring and non-recurring grants to remove financial difficulties. As a result the number of recognised primary schools increased from 93, in to 1,18, in , i.
Lord Curzon also tried to remove traditionalism in our primary education system and introduced subjects like Agriculture and Physical education in the primary school curriculum to make it more useful, practical and modern. He made provision for training of the teachers and make their pay scale improved and uniform. Besides these, Curzon tried to introduce improved method of teaching like the Kindergarten method and gave importance on developing the reasoning power rather than mechanical memorization. By observing all these we must admit that Lord Curzon tried to bring the spirit of modernisation in our primary education.
Write briefly on the Simla Education Conference. What was the major cause of the slow progress of primary education in India? Name the new subjects introduced by Lord Curzon in the primary school curriculum. List the steps taken by Lord Curzon to improve the condition of primary education. Let us now turn our attention towards the Secondary Education Policy and see how he wanted to improve it. First we will discuss the Policy of control.
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Policy of control : The Hunter Commission of suggested that the Government should withdraw from the field of secondary education and its expansion should be left to the private bodies which were to be given liberal grant in aid. As a result the number of private schools increased. Although the Government fixed certain rules and regulations for the Government aided schools there was no such regulation for the privately managed schools, most of which were inefficiently and poorly staffed and poorly equipped.
In the Government Resolution on Education of , it is stated that whether these schools are managed by public authority or by private persons and whether they have received public funds or not, the Government is bound in the interest of the community to see that education provided to them are sound. The Government at that time tried to control the private schools in the following way : The managing committee of the school should be properly constituted.
The financial condition of the school should be stable.
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The school must make provision for the health and recreation of its pupils. The number of teachers should be suitable and properly qualified. For establishing secondary schools in a particular area the necessity of the school will be assessed. Every secondary school whether Government aided or privately managed must receive recognition from the Director of Public Instruction of the concerned state.
In addition to the recognition from the Education Department, it must obtain recognition from a University also if it wants to present students at the Matriculation examination conducted by the University. Recognised schools will be eligible to receive Government grant-in-aid and pupils to receive scholarships.
Transfer of students from an unrecognised school to a recognised school was prohibited. Policy of Improvement: Curzon realised that Government control alone cannot improve the conditions of secondary schools. For qualitative improvement he adopted the following measures: Provincial Governments should sanction more financial grants to improve the condition of secondary school. Government secondary schools should serve as a model for private secondary schools.
Grants should be provided to private schools also to make them equal to standard schools like the public schools. The number of teacher training centres should be increased and teachers should be encouraged to receive training. The inspectorate was to be made more efficient for effecting rigorous control over secondary education and the number of inspectors should be increased. Curriculum of the secondary schools should be modified by including practical and vocational subjects.
Physical education should be included as a subject inthe curriculum. The medium of instruction should be mother tongue upto middle school level. But the study of English must not be neglected. Importance should be given to improving discipline among students and teachers.
His policy to make the secondary schools receive recognition from the Government as well as from the university helped in improving its quality of education. Many private secondary schools had to close down for the failure to get recognition because of which many nationalist Indians criticised Lord Curzon for his policy and expressed that he wanted to crush nationalistic upsurge. But his strict policy helped to improve not only the quality of education but also the quality of administration of secondary schools also.
Secondly, as the schools had to take recognition from the University, they had to give importance on teacher training and raising the academic standard in order to send their students for matriculation examination. Thirdly, it is worth mentioning that it was Lord Curzon who insisted that mother tongue should be the medium of instruction up to middle level. For this measures many poor students were able to receive education through their own languages.
This paved the way for introducing mother tongue as a medium of instruction in secondary schools in later stages. Write briefly: a Policy of Control. Do you think Lord Curzon was successful in improving the condition of secondary education in India? Already you are familiar with the primary and secondary education policy of Lord Curzon. Lord Curzon was the first person to appoint a commission on University education. On January,27, , the Indian University Commission was appointed under the Chairmanship of Sir Thomas Ralley to enquire into the conditions of the Universities established in British India, and to consider and report upon the proposals for improving their constitution and working.
The commission submitted its report in June of the same year stressing the need for reorganisation of the Universities. It rejected the idea of setting up new Universities. Its main recommendations are as follows—. The Indian Universities Act of , passed on March, 21 was formulated on the basis of the recommendations of the Indian University Commission of The main provisions of this Act are—. Universities were given the right of teaching along with the right of conducting examination. In short, their scope was enlarged. Universities had the right to appoint teachers to conduct teaching and undertake research.
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They also had the right to manage their libraries, laboratories and to make out plans to bring about discipline among students. Upto the moment the number of the seats in the Senate of the Universities were not fixed and the Govt. According to this Act.
The minimum number was fifty and the maximum number was hundred. Their term was determined for five years. The Act introduced the principle of election in the constitution of the Senate. The Act gave statutory recognition to Syndicates and made provision for the adequate representation of university teachers in the university Senate. The Govt. Rules in regard to granting recognition were made more strict.
In order to raise the standards of education, the Syndicate could call for the inspection of colleges imparting higher education. Prior to this Act.
As a result some colleges were affiliated to two universities while others were situated in the jurisdiction of one university but affiliated to another. This Act, made it clear that the Governor General will by his ordinary or extraordinary orders fix the territorial jurisdiction of the Universities and according to this provision the relations between colleges shall be established and maintained.
It is clear from the above discussion that Lord Curzon wanted to control the functioning of the universities and thereby break the autonomy of the universities. In the recommendations of the Indian University Commission of , there was no proposal for establishing new university. Moreover, there was no representation of any Indian in the two Commissions because of this for his policy did not find favour with the Indian Public.
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