German shares an inheritance with other closely related languages, including English, Dutch and the Scandinavian languages, but has modified this inheritance in distinctive ways. The historical strand of the paper examines data from earlier periods of German to enable students to build up a picture of how its sounds, grammatical forms and lexicon have changed over time.
In the contemporary strand of the paper, linguistic data from spoken and written, standard, non-standard and dialect texts is analysed to yield a formal description of modern German, and to examine how the language is changing today. The paper has both descriptive and theoretical goals: students will learn how to use formal linguistic terminology to describe the phonology, morphology and syntax of German, and how to use theoretical models to interpret varied and changing features.
The exam includes some practical exercises in linguistic analysis as well as essay topics of a more theoretical nature. Martin Luther.
The extract published in W. The Easter term will be devoted to revision classes.
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For the Ge. The password can be collected from the paper coordinator. The examination will be divided into two sections. Section A is devoted to contemporary German; Section B contains questions on the historical linguistics of German from the earliest times. Each section includes an optional practical exercise: identification of a dialect passage or discussion of a set of words, in Section A; translation of short extracts from set texts, plus commentary on underlined words and phrases, in Section B.
Candidates must answer three questions, at least one from each section.
Portuguese: A Linguistic Introduction
A specimen examination paper can be seen here. Search site. International students Continuing education Executive and professional education Courses in education. Research at Cambridge. What do students of German do after graduation? FAQ: Isn't German a very hard language to learn? This paper is available for the academic year Middle High German Nibelungenlied , strophes , in: M. Preparatory reading:.
Historical Salmons, Joseph. A History of German.
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Oxford: OUP. Schmidt, Wilhelm. Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. Isi Introduction.
On the Directionality of Cross-Linguistic Effects in Bidialectal Bilingualism
Peninsula ca tenth century. Portuguese in time. The expansion of European Portuguese.
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Brazilian Portuguese. Sociolinguistic issues. Suggestions for further reading. Hak Cipta. Azevedo Pratinjau tidak tersedia - Coleman , Eric C. Marcus Pratinjau terbatas - Informasi bibliografi. Azevedo Cambridge University Press , 13 Jan - halaman 0 Resensi This accessible book provides a comprehensive introduction to the linguistic structure of Portuguese.
Related Portuguese: A Linguistic Introduction
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