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Ambedkar's core beliefs. Further echoes of Dr. Ambedkar's rhetoric of the need for self-respect amongst Dalits occur when in the play itself, the character Kundan observes, "It is surprising to see so much self-respect in every child of the Aryans and its total absence among the non-Aryans They have accepted slavery and are attuned to obedience. Regardless of Singh's relationship to Hinduism and Dr. Ambedkar, it is clear that Singh uses the Shambook story within The Ramayana as a framework to critique the Aryan invaders Brahminism , notions of caste, and the subjugation of his people.
Singh makes his mission clear in the introduction to the play, when he notes that his first objective in writing the play Shambook Vadh, is that "the Sudras and Mahasudras [become] aware of their rights. Ambedkar's philosophy—that, "India's Untouchables are the descendants of the ancient Buddhists, who were, in turn, the descendants of the pre-Aryan aboriginals of India.
Singh ties in similar Dalit calls to action and statements of resistance throughout his play, through the statements of the character, Shambook, who in this telling, is a teacher and social-activist. In this play, Shambook's mission is by no means hidden. He explicitly declares his goal of mobilizing and liberating the Shudra community when he says, "I have taken the responsibility to liberate my society from mental slavery, superstition, narrow thinking, and foolish acts.
Similar to his statement of mission, Shambook's speeches in the play echo the sentiments of various Dalit leaders who emphasize the importance of unity within the Dalit community and take solace in the fact that Shudras and Dalits far outnumber their upper-caste oppressors. In the play, Shambook asks his fellow Shudra and student, "Are you only a few? The entire country is inhabited by people of your race It is the Aryans who are small in number. It is through their tactical manipulations that they are now your rulers.
Thus, Shambook's declaration is still applicable and relevant in a modern context. Soon after Shambook's initial statement, one of his students, Munder, complains that, "This system of Varna stops us from uniting. Ambedkar, who believed that various sub-castes should unite to assert their basic human rights.
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Finally, in Shambook Vadh, Singh illustrates blatant corruption within the Brahmin community, and in doing so, suggests the skewed and inaccurate nature of the Shambook story in Valmiki's original telling. In Singh's play, the Brahmins plan a conspiracy against Shambook, and in essence, frame him. One says, "We have to propagate that in the reign of Ram, a Sudra is performing ascetic exercises due to which the entire territory is engulfed in sin. After becoming disillusioned with the Arya Samaj and its 'purification rituals,' he founded the Adi-Hindu movement original Hindu movement , aimed at uplifting the lower-caste community through social and literary activism.
By , his play was published in its twelfth edition and it is still currently sold at Dalit festivals.
In her introduction to the play, translator Sarah Beth defines it as, "a subversive narrative [that] provides a Dalit reinterpretation of the time of Ramrajya not as ideal rule but as an age of misrule where the state remained under the upper castes instead of reflecting justice for all. Ultimately, she defines the text as an "important Dalit counter-perspective. There was never such misfortune. Do you not know that my father was robbed by the Brahmins and impoverished? Without self-respect, he worked grazing cattle for a Brahmin household.
Achhutanand portrays Rama as initially rational, but brainwashed by Brahmins. In this telling, at first Rama says, "I don't understand Shambuka's offense. If he is carrying out ascetic practices or yogic achievements in the secluded forest and arousing his friends, how can he be held response for the death of the Brahmin's son? Achhutanand characterizes Rama as a king who is misled from his intuition due to his being a puppet of the upper-castes.
He appears to have no sense of self or conviction, —an inability to rely on his own moral compass. His impressionableness or favoritism towards Brahmins is evinced when he declares that, "For the auspiciousness of Brahmins, the cruelty [beheading of Shambuka] will be done.
Download Rapt In The Name : The Ramnamis, Ramnam, And Untouchable Religion In Central India
Similar to Singh's Shambook, Achhutanand's Shambuka is a social activist, lamented by Brahmins as having "broken the caste regulations of society and [having taught] Adi-Dharm original religion to the Shudras in opposition to the teaching of the Vedas. Evidently, both playwrights self-consciously reject the traditional Shambuka story in favor of a new narrative that provides Shambuka leadership, agency and a Shudra following. The play closes with Shambuka's wife, Tungabhadra, taking the spotlight, critiquing Rama for his most unethical acts. Her final declaration further indicts Rama and exposes his hypocrisy and immoral transgressions, furthering one of Singh's potential political messages—that the time of Ram-Rajya was not a time of ideal rule, but rather, an era of misrule, corruption, and exploitation of lower castes.
In it, Tungabhadra yells, "Unjust king!.. When you lived in the forest, you killed innumerable adi-nivasis as if they were worthless because you were misled by Brahmin When you were in exile you disgraced the widow Surpanakha. Sitting on the throne of the king, you expelled your own pregnant wife Sita into the forest, knowing she was innocent. Implications of the Categorization: So What?
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