The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics)


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By Norman Ravitch. Edited by A. By John Copeland. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. By Vincent E. By John Child. By John Hibbs.

The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence

By Roberto Vivarelli. By Harry W. By Carl E. North Carolina University Press: O. By Alfred F. By Stephen B. By James Penick. By Shanti Swarrup. Edited by Creighton Gabel and Norman R. Hogben and A. Edited by Prosser Gifford and W. Roger Louis, with the assistance of Alison Smith. By Claire Palley. Edited with an Introduction by Daryll Forde and P. Edited by Herbert Butterfield and Martin Wight. Edited by Elizabeth Crittall, assisted by K. Volume 54 , Issue The full text of this article hosted at iucr.

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Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. M Jones. Edited by J. By Santo Mazzarino. By Michael Maclagan. Thames and Hudson. By Derek W. By Roger Lockyer. By Herschel Baker. By Henry Kamen. They had always had enemies in the German towns, and in July , thirty-eight Jews were executed at Berlin.

This intolerant spirit began, in , to be directed against their books. None were printed in Germany until but from they had Hebrew presses in Italy, at Naples, Mantua, Soncino, and at Constantinople. If their study was encouraged while the printing was permitted, the Jews would become a power such as they never were before printing began, and when none but a few divines could read Hebrew.

In his anxiety to bring over his former brethren he desired to deprive them of their books. He would allow them to retain only the Old Testament, without their commentaries. He would compel them to hear Christian sermons. By degrees he urged that they should be expelled, and at last that they should be exterminated. Maximilian, the emperor, turned with every wind.

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Reuchlin, the defender of toleration, was attacked by Pfefferkorn, as a sceptic and a traitor, and was accused before the ecclesiastical court. In the Bishop of Spires, acting for the Pope, acquitted Reuchlin; the sentence was confirmed at Rome in , and the Dominicans, who were plaintiffs, agreed to pay the costs. Nevertheless they appealed, and in Rome reversed the previous judgment and condemned Reuchlin. In the midst of greater things the sentence escaped attention, and was only brought to light by a scholar who is still living.

But in the meantime the Humanists had taken up the cause of Reuchlin, and the result had been disastrous for the Dominicans. They had not directly assailed the new learning, but their attack on the study of Hebrew had been the most crass exhibition of retrograde spirit.


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If Jews were not allowed to read Jewish books, such as Maimonides, to whom St. Thomas owes so much, how could Christians be allowed to read pagan classics, with their highly immoral gods and goddesses? The golden opportunity of making intolerance ridiculous could not be neglected. In the summer of a volume appeared purporting to contain letters to Ortwin Grotius; and it was followed two years later by another.

With some good satire and some amusing caricature, they also contained much personal insult and calumny. The wit is not enough to carry on the joke through letters, carefully composed in Teutonic dog Latin by the best Latinists north of the Brenner. Erasmus, who was diverted at first, afterwards turned away with disgust, and Luther called the authors buffoons.

The main writer of the first volume was Crotus Rubianus, and of the other, Hurten. Reuchlin himself disapproved. But he shared in the victory, which was so brilliant that his condemnation by Rome passed without notice, and it was not till our day that the success of the despised Pfefferkorn became known to the world.

It was the first effective appeal to opinion against constituted authority, and the most decisive demonstration of the power of the press. And it gave the Humanists occasion so to define the issue that all could understand, in spite of the reserve of Erasmus and of Reuchlin himself. Erasmus Rogers, the greatest figure in the Renaissance, was born at Rotterdam and brought up in extreme poverty, and he was a valetudinarian and an invalid in consequence of early privation.

He lived in France and Belgium, in England and Italy, in Switzerland and Germany, so that each country contributed to his development, and none set its stamp upon him. He was eminently an international character; and was the first European who lived in intimacy with other ages besides his own, and could appreciate the gradual ripening and enlargement of ideas. He devoted himself on equal terms to classical and to Christian antiquity, and drew from both alike the same lessons of morality and wisdom; for he valued doctrine chiefly for the sake of a good life and a happy death, and was impatient of subtle dialectics and speculative disputations.

With so much of Renaissance studies as did not serve the good estate of souls he showed little sympathy, and was indifferent to art, to metaphysics, to antiquarian pedantry. He endeavoured to make men familiar with the wisdom of the ancients by a collection of adages selected from their works. His Colloquies, the most popular book of his age, sold in 24, copies. At first he was more a scholar than a divine; and though he learned Greek late, and was never a first-rate Hellenist, published editions of the classics.

In later life the affairs of religion absorbed him, and he lived for the idea that reform of the Church depended on a better knowledge of early Christianity, in other words, on better self-knowledge, which could only result from a slow and prolonged literary process. It had already been printed from better MSS. It was produced at last, in a hurry, to secure the priority, and was not greatly improved afterwards. Part of the Apocalypse was wanting in all his MSS. He restored it by translating it into Greek from the Vulgate, and in six verses made thirty mistakes. His second edition had a letter of approbation from Leo X, and it was the edition which Luther used for his translation.

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It is a sign of the want of religious interest in the Renaissance, especially in Italy, that printing had been going on for sixty years, and 24, works issued from the press, some of them more than a hundred times, before anybody thought of the Greek Testament. Erasmus occupied his later years with the works of the Fathers, also printed by Froben, the Greeks in Latin translations.

The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics) The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics)
The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics) The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics)
The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics) The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics)
The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics) The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics)
The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics) The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics)
The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics) The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics)
The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics) The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics)
The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics) The Works of Machiavelli: The Prince, The Art of War, and the History of Florence (Halcyon Classics)

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